Q-balls



Dynamics of Nontopological Solitons - Q Balls


M. Axenides a, S. Komineasb, L. Perivolaropoulosa, M. Floratosa
aInstitute of Nuclear Research, N.C.R.P.S. Demokritos, 15310 Athens, Greece
bPhysikalisches Institut, Universitat Bayreuth D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany






Abstract

We use numerical simulations and semi-analytical methods to investigate the stability and the interactions of nontopological stationary qball solutions. In the context of a simple model we map the parameter sectors of stability for a single qball and verify the result using numerical simulations of time evolution. The system of two interacting qballs is also studied in one and two space dimensions. We find that the system generically performs breather type oscillations with frequency equal to the difference of the internal qball frequencies. This result is shown to be consistent with the form of the qball interaction potential. Finally we perform simulations of qball scattering and show that the right angle scattering effect observed in topological soliton scattering in two dimensions, persists also in the case of qballs where no topologically conserved quantities are present. For relativistic collision velocities the qball charge is split into a forward and a right angle scattering component. As the collision velocity increases, the forward component gets amplified at the expense of the right angle component.